Symptoms of fluoride toxicity

Symptoms/Associations

Symptoms/Associations


© 1996 – 2012 PFPC
(NOTE: This table was originally published in 1998. The links are no longer active)

see also: History

“Though apparently vague and non-specific, most of the symptoms of fluoride toxicity point towards some kind of profound metabolic dysfunction, and are strikingly similar to the symptoms of Hypothyroidism.”
(Dental Fluorosis Medical Module, Case Study for the 4th Year Course in Ecosystem Health at UWO – University of Western Ontario, 2002)

 

FLUORIDE POISONING

THYROID DYSFUNCTION
(Iodine Deficiency Disorders)

  • Abnormal Sweating (18)
  • Abnormal Sweating (154, 155, 156)
  • Acne (2,3)
  • Acne (52)
  • ADHD/Learning Disorders (4,7)
  • ADHD/Learning Disorders (54)
  • Allergies (2)
  • Allergies (52)
  • Alopecia (Hair-loss)(18)
  • Alopecia (151)
  • Alzheimer’s Disease (5,6,46)
  • Alzheimer’s Disease (98)
  • Anaphylactic Shock (2)
  • Anaphylactic Shock (124)
  • Anemia (15)
  • Anemia (67)
  • Apnea (Cessation of breath)
  • Apnea (52)
  • Aorta Calcification (2)
  • Aorta Calcification (100)
  • Asthenia (Weakness) (18)
  • Asthenia (97)
  • Asthma (2)
  • Asthma (129)
  • Atherosclerosis (3)
  • Atherosclerosis (59)
  • Arthralgia (2)
  • Arthralgia (58)
  • Arthritis (8, 13)
  • Arthritis (52, 58)
  • Ataxia (2)
  • Ataxia (66)
  • Autism (169)
  • Autism (170, 171)
  • Back Pain (2)
  • Back Pain (153)
  • Behavioural Problems (3)
  • Behavioural Problems (54)
  • Birth Defects (5)
  • Birth Defects (53)
  • Blind Spots (3)
  • Blind Spots (52)
  • Body temperature disturbances (13)
  • Body temperature disturbances (52)
  • Breast Cancer (5)
  • Breast Cancer (147)
  • Cachexia (wasting away)(2)
  • Cachexia (133)
  • Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (5)
  • Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (52)
  • Cataracts (2)
  • Cataracts (69)
  • Change in blood pressure(=/-) (2)
  • Change in blood pressure (52)
  • Chest pain (26)
  • Chest pain (52)
  • Cholelithiasis (Gallstones)(2)
  • Cholelithiasis (134)
  • Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (2)
  • Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (52)
  • Collagen breakdown (3)
  • Collagen Breakdown (99)
  • Cold Shivers (13)
  • Cold Shivers (52)
  • Coma (1,3)
  • Coma (65)
  • Concentration Inability (13,8)
  • Concentration Inability (52)
  • Constipation (52)
  • Constipation (52)
  • Convulsions (2)
  • Convulsions (81)
  • Crying easily for no apparent reason (18)
  • Crying easily for no apparent reason (52)
  • Death (3)
  • Death (123)
  • Decrease in Testosterone (32)
  • Decrease in Testosterone (96)
  • Dementia (2)
  • Dementia (54)
  • Demyelinizing Diseases (2, 35)
  • Demyelinizing Diseases (137)
  • Dental Abnormalities (2)
  • Dental Abnormalities (86)
  • Dental Arch smaller (27)
  • Dental Arch smaller (95)
  • Dentral Crowding (23)
  • Dental Crowding (93)
  • Dental enamel more porous (29)
  • Dental enamel more porous (96)
  • Dentral Fluorosis (Mottling of teeth)
  • Mottling of teeth (172)
  • Delayed Eruption of Teeth (28)
  • Delayed Eruption of Teeth (86)
  • Depression (8)
  • Depression (52, 97, 152)
  • Diabetes Insipidus (36a,b)
  • Diabetes Insipidus (120)
  • Diabetes Mellitus (2)
  • Diabetes Mellitus (64)
  • Diarrhea (8)
  • Diarrhea (53)
  • Dizziness (8,13)
  • Dizziness (52)
  • Down Syndrome (10)
  • Down Syndrome (54)
  • Dry Mouth (2)
  • Dry Mouth (52)
  • Dyspepsia (8)
  • Dyspepsia (157)
  • Dystrophy (3)
  • Dystrophy (79)
  • Early/Delayed Onset of Puberty(14)
  • Early/Delayed Onset of Puberty (53)
  • Eczema (2)
  • Eczema (115, 116)
  • Edema(3)
  • Edema (97)
  • Epilepsy (2)
  • Epilepsy (121)
  • Eosinophilia (15)
  • Eosinophilia (55)
  • Excessive Sleepiness (8)
  • Excessive Sleepiness (52)
  • Eye, ear and nose disorders (8)
  • Eye, ear and nose disorders (52)
  • Fatigue (2,13)
  • Fatigue (52)
  • Fearfulness (1,18)
  • Fearfulness (71)
  • Fever (13)
  • Fever (96)
  • Fibromyalgia (2)
  • Fibromyalgia (143)
  • Fibrosarcoma (3)
  • Fibrosarcoma (144)
  • Fibrosis (3)
  • Fibrosis (76a,b)
  • Fingernails:Lines/Grooves (1)
  • Fingernails:Lines/Grooves (97)
  • Fingernails:Brittle (1,3)
  • Fingernails:Brittle (97)
  • Forgetfulness (3)
  • Forgetfulness (97)
  • Gastro-disturbances (8)
  • Gastro-disturbances (52)
  • Gastric Ulcers (2)
  • Gastric Ulcers (92)
  • Giant Cell Formation
  • Giant Cell Formation (135)
  • Gingivitis (19, 173)
  • Gingivitis (72)
  • Glaucoma (174)
  • Glaucoma (175)
  • Goitre (2)
  • Goitre (52)
  • Growth Disturbances (1)
  • Growth Disturbances (53)
  • Headache (2)
  • Headache (118)
  • Hearing Loss (5)
  • Hearing Loss (165)
  • Heart Disorders
  • Heart Disorders (52)
  • Heart Failure (3)
  • Heart Failure (109, 110)
  • Heart Palpitations (13)
  • Heart Palpitations (52)
  • Hepatitis (2)
  • Hepatitis (136)
  • Hemorrhage (1,2)
  • Hemorrhage (85)
  • Hives (3)
  • Hives (108)
  • Hoarseness (18)
  • Hoarseness (97)
  • Hyperparathyroidism (2)
  • Hyperparathyroidism (82)
  • Hypertension (8)
  • Hypertension (52, 60)
  • Hypoplasia (40)
  • Hypoplasia (150)
  • Immunosuppression (3)
  • Immunosuppression (52)
  • Impotence (3)
  • Impotence (97)
  • Incoherence (8)
  • Incoherence (54)
  • Infertility (2,3)
  • Infertility (87)
  • Inflammatory Bowel Disease
  • Inflammatory Bowel Disease (142)
  • Inner Ear Disorders (2,5)
  • Inner Ear Disorders (139)
  • Irritability (18)
  • Irritability (160)
  • Joint Pains (8)
  • Joint Pains (52)
  • Kidney Failure (2)
  • Kidney Failure (125)
  • Lack of Energy (8)
  • Lack of Energy (52)
  • Lack of Co-ordination (2)
  • Lack of Co-ordination (52)
  • Loss of Appetite (2)
  • Loss of Appetite (97)
  • Loss of Consciousness (2)
  • Loss of Consciousness (138)
  • Loss of IQ (25)
  • Loss of IQ (83)
  • Loss of Spermatogenesis (33)
  • Loss of Spermatogenesis (102)
  • Low Birth Weight (5)
  • Low Birth Weight (158)
  • Lung Cancer (3)
  • Lung cancer (145)
  • Lupus (3)
  • Lupus (101)
  • Magnesium Deficiency (2)
  • Magnesium Deficiency (94)
  • Memory Loss (13)
  • Memory Loss (52)
  • Mental Confusion (20)
  • Mental Confusion (52,54)
  • Migraine (8)
  • Migraine (52)
  • Monisiliasis (Candidasis) (162)
  • Monisiliasis (Candidasis) (161)
  • More fluorosis/high altitudes (30,31)
  • More hypothyroidism/high altitudes (96)
  • Mouth Sores (2)
  • Mouth Sores (87)
  • Myalgia (Muscle Pain) (2)
  • Myalgia (58)
  • Myotrophy (Muscle wasting) (2)
  • Myotrophy (58)
  • Multiple Sclerosis (4)
  • Multiple Sclerosis (126)
  • Muscle Cramps (3)
  • Muscle Cramps (58)
  • Muscle Stiffness (3)
  • Muscle Stiffness (58)
  • Muscle Weakness (2)
  • Muscle Weakness (57)
  • Muscoskeletal Disease (3)
  • Muscoskeletal Disease (80,57)
  • Nausea (8,13)
  • Nausea (52)
  • Osteoarthritis (2)
  • Osteoarthritis (62)
  • Osteoporosis (2)
  • Osteoporosis (62)
  • Osteosarcoma (22b)
  • Osteosarcoma (104)
  • Optic Neuritis (2)
  • Optic Neuritis (68)
  • Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (22)
  • Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (103)
  • Otosclerosis
  • Otosclerosis
  • Parkinson’s Disease (5)
  • Parkinson’s Disease (110,111)
  • Pins & Needles (18)
  • Pins & Needles (52)
  • Polydipsia (2)
  • Polydipsia (64)
  • Polyneuropathy (2)
  • Polyneuropathy (57)
  • Polyurea (2)
  • Polyurea (64)
  • Pyelocystitis (2)
  • Pyelocystitis (63)
  • Premature Delivery (16)
  • Premature Delivery (52)
  • Pruritis (Itchy Skin) (3)
  • Pruritis (113)
  • Pulminary Edema (2)
  • Pulminary Edema (114)
  • Recurring Colds (18)
  • Recurring Colds (52)
  • Respiratory Complications (13,8)
  • Respiratory Complications (52)
  • Restlessness (13)
  • Restlessness (52)
  • Retinitis (2)
  • Retinitis (128)
  • Rhinitis (38)
  • Rhinitis (6)
  • Schizophrenia (18)
  • Schizophrenia (163, 164)
  • Sceroderma (3)
  • Scleroderma (74)
  • Skin Pigmentation (2)
  • Skin Pigmentation (97)
  • Secondary teeth erupt later (16)
  • Secondary teeth erupt later (86)
  • Sensitive to light (1,17)
  • Sensitive to light (52)
  • Seizures (13)
  • Seizures (88)
  • Shortness of Breath (13)
  • Shortness of Breath (52)
  • SIDS (16)
  • SIDS (54)
  • Sinus Infections (2,8)
  • Sinus Infections (52)
  • Skeletal Changes (2)
  • Skeletal Changes (86)
  • Sleep Disorders (2)
  • Sleep Disorders (52)
  • Slipped Epiphysis
  • Slipped Epiphysis
  • Sluggishness (2)
  • Sluggishness (52)
  • Skin Irritations (13,8)
  • Skin Irritations (52)
  • Spondylitis, ankylosing (5)
  • Spondylitis, ankylosing (148)
  • Stillbirths (2)
  • Stillbirths (97)
  • Swallowing Difficulties (Dysphagia) (13)
  • Swallowing Difficulties (52)
  • Swelling in Face (Angioedema) (3)
  • Swelling in Face (97)
  • Telangiectasia (166)
  • Telangiectasia (167, 168)
  • Testicular Growth/Alteration (2, 42)
  • Testicular Growth/Alteration (102)
  • Thirst (13)
  • Thirst (89)
  • Thrombosis (39)
  • Thrombosis (122, 141a,b)
  • Thyroid Cancer (22)
  • Thyroid Cancer (87)
  • Tinnitus (8)
  • Tinnitus (52)
  • Tingling Sensations(18)
  • Tingling Sensations (52)
  • Visual disturbances (13,8)
  • Visual Disturbances (52)
  • Ulcerative Colitis (41)
  • Ulcerative Colitis (142)
  • Urticaria (2)
  • Urticaria (105, 106, 107)
  • Uterine Bleeding (2)
  • Uterine Bleeding (91)
  • Uterine Cancer (23)
  • Uterine Cancer (77)
  • Vaginal Bleeding (5)
  • Vaginal Bleeding (90)
  • Vas Deferens Alterations (5)
  • Vas Deferens Alterations (146)
  • Vertigo (8)
  • Vertigo (52)
  • Vitiligo (white spots/skin) (2)
  • Vitiligo (73)
  • Weak Pulse (13)
  • Weak Pulse (52)
  • Weight Disturbances (2)
  • Weight Disturbances (52)
  • Zinc Deficiency (2)
  • Zinc Deficiency (94)
REFERENCES:

1) Meiers P – “Zur Toxizität von Fluorverbindungen, mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Onkogenese”, Verlag für Medizin Dr. Ewald Fischer, Heidelberg (1984)

2) Waldbott GL, Burgstahler AW, McKinney HL – “Fluoridation:The Great Dilemma” Coronado Press (1978)

3) Yiamouyiannis J – “Fluoride – The Aging Factor”,  3rd. Edition, Health Action Press, 6439 Taggart Road, Delaware, Ohio (1993)

4) Mullenix PJ, Denbesten PK, Schunior A, Kernan WJ – “Neurotoxicity of Sodium Fluoride In Rats” Neurotoxicology and Teratology 17(2):169-177(1995)

5) Judd G – “Good Teeth Birth To Death”, Research Publications, Glendale Arizona (1997), EPA Research #2 (1994)

6) Varner JA, Jensen KF, Horvath W, Isaacson RL – “Chronic administration of aluminum- fluoride or sodium-fluoride to rats in drinking water: alterations in neuronal and cerebrovascular integrity” Brain Research 784 284-298 (1998)

7) Zhao LB, Liang GH, Zhang DN, Wu XR – “Effect of high fluoride water supply on children’s intelligence” Fluoride 29 190-192 (1996)

8 ) Grimbergen GW – “A Double Blind Test for Determination of Intolerance to Fluoridated Water (Preliminary Report)” Fluoride 7:146-152 (1974)

9) Wilson RH,  DeEds F – “The Synergistic Action Of Thyroid On Fluorine Toxicity” Endocrinology 26:851 (1940)

10) Rapaport, I – “Nouvelles recherches sur le mongolisme. A propos du role pathogénique du fluor” Bull Acad Nat Med (Paris)143:367-370 (1959)

11) Day TK, Powell-Jackson PR – “Fluoride, Water Hardness, and Endemic Goitre” Lancet 1:1135-1138 (1972)

12) Zhao W,Zhu H, Yu Z, Aoki  K, Misumi J, Zhang X – “Long-term Effects of Various Iodine and Fluorine Doses on the Thyroid and Fluorosis in Mice” Endocr Regul 32(2):63-70 (1998)

13) Roholm K – Fluorine Intoxication – “A Clinical Hygiene Study, With A Review Of the Literature And Some Experimental Investigations” H.K. Lewis & Co., London (1937)

14) Luke JA – “Effect of fluoride on the physiology of the pineal gland” Caries Research 28 204 (1994)

15) Hillman D, Bolenbaugh DL, Convey EM – “Hypothyroidism and anemia related to fluoride in dairy cattle” J Dairy Sci 62(3):416-23 (1979)

16) Schatz A – “Low-level fluoridation and low-level radiation –Two case histories of mis-conduct in science” by Albert Schatz, Ph.D,1996, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
http://www.cadvision.com/fluoride/schatz.htm

17)Visnerevski V – Gig Tr Prof Zabol 13:60 (1969)

18) Spira L – “The Drama of Fluorine – Arch Enemy of Mankind” Milwaukee Press (1953) (Compilation of published articles)

19) Dean T – JAMA 107:1269 (1936)

20) Smith MC – J Dent Res 14:139 (1934)

21) Staub M, Csapo Z, Spasokukotskaja T, Sasvari-Szekely M – “Deoxycytidine kinase can be also potentiated by the G-protein activator NaF in cells” Adv Exp Med Biol 431:425-8 (1998)

22) NTP Technical Report Series No. 393; NIH Publication No. 91-2848; “Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of sodium fluoride (CAS No. 7681-49-4) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice”, December 1990) National Toxicology Program P.O. Box 12233 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709

23) Tohyama E – “Relationship between fluoride concentration in drinking water mortality rate from uterine cancer in Okinawa prefecture, Japan” J Epidemiol (CL8); 6 (4): 184-91 (1996)

24) Masztalerz A, Masztalerzowa Z, Szymanska M, Tomelka J- “Fluorine and the dentition” Fortschr Kieferorthop 51(4):234-7(1990)

25) Li XS, Zhi JL,Gao RO – “Effect of fluoride exposure on intelligence in children” Fluoride 28 (1995)

26) Petraborg HT – “Hydrofluorosis in the Fluoridated Milwaukee Area” Fluoride 10(4)(1977)

27) Jonas I, et al – “Changes in tooth morphology as affected by fluoridated drinking water” Schweiz Monatsschr Zahnmed 94(5):399-4089 (1984)

28) Kunzel VW – “Cross-sectional comparison of the median eruption time for permanent teeth in children from fluoride poor and optimally fluoridated areas” Stomatol DDR 5:310-21 (1976)

29) Fejerskov O, Manji F, Baelum V- “The nature and mechanisms of dental fluorosis in man “J Dent Res 69 Spec No:692-700; discussion 721 (1990)

30) Yoder KM, Mabelya L, Robison VA, Dunipace AJ, Brizendine EJ, Stookey GK – “Severe dental fluorosis in a Tanzanian population consuming water with negligible fluoride concentration” Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 26(6):382-93 (1998)

31) Rwenyonyi C, Bjorvatn K, Birkeland J, Haugejorden O- “Altitude as a Risk Indicator of Dental Fluorosis in Children Residing in Areas with 0.5 and 2.5 mg Fluoride per Litre in Drinking Water.” Caries Res 33(4):267-274 (1999)

32) Suheela, AK; Jethanandani, P – “Circulating Testosterone Levels is skeletal Fluorosis patients” J Tox Clin Tox 34(2):187-189 (1996)

33) Tomas James Rees – The Toxicology of Male Reproduction, Literature Review in Applied Toxicology, Portsmouth University, February 1993

34) Balabolkin MI, Mikhailets ND, Lobovskaia RN, Chernousova NV – “The interrelationship of the thyroid and immune statuses of workers with long-term fluorine exposure” Ter Arkh 67(1):41-2 (1995)

35) Franke J, Rath F, Runge H, Fengler F, Auermann E, Lenart G – “Industrial Fluorosis” Fluoride 8:61-85 (1975)

36a) Bosch T – “Nephrotoxicity and fluoride from the viewpoint of the nephrologist” Anaesthesist 45 Suppl 1:S41-5 (1996)

36b) Rush GF, Willis LR  – “Renal tubular effects of sodium fluoride”
J Pharmacol Exp Ther 223(2):275-9 (1982)

37) Medvedeva VN – “Blood serotonin levels and urinary excretion of tryptamine in toxic hepatitis caused by fluoride compounds” Vrach Delo (6):92-5 (1985)

38) Kowalska S, Sulkowski W – “Perforation of the nasal septum of occupational origin” Med Pr 34(2):171-5 (1983)

39) Matsumoto S – “Hydrofluoric acid burn: particulars on multiple pulmonary thrombi” Sangyo Ika Daigaku Zasshi 11(4):411-24 (1989)

40) Nelson DG, Coote GE, Vickridge IC, Suckling G – “Proton microprobe determination of fluorine profiles in the enamel and dentine of erupting incisors from sheep given low and high daily doses of fluoride” Arch Oral Biol 34(6):419-29 (1989)

41) Rachmilewitz D, Karmeli F, Selinger Z-“Increased colonic adenylate cyclase activity in active ulcerative colitis” Gastroenterology 85(1):12-6 (1983)

42) Tokar’ VI, Savchenko ON – “Effect of inorganic fluorine compounds on the functional state of the pituitary-testis system” Probl Endokrinol (Mosk) 23(4):104-7 (1977)

43) Strunecka A, Patocka J – “Aluminum and fluoride: a new, deadly duo in Alzheimer’s Disease” Cesk Fysiol 48(1):9-15 (1999)

THYROID MEDICATION

44)Galetti PM, Joyet G – “Effect of Fluorine On Thyroidal Iodine Metabolism in Hyperthyroidism” J Clin Endocrinol 18:1102-1110 (1958)

45) May W – “Antagonismus zwischen Jod und Fluor im Organismus” Klin Wochenschr 14:790-792 (1937)

46) May W – “Behandlung der Hypothyreosen einschließlich des schweren genuinen Morbus Basedow mit Fluor” Klin Wochenschr 16:562-564 (1937)

47) Gorlitzer von Mundy – “Einfluss von Fluor und Jod auf den Stoffwechsel, insbesondere auf die Schilddrüse” Münch Med Wochenschrift 105:234-247 (1963)

48) Gordonoff T – Fluor und die Schilddrüse, Toxikology des Fluors
Basel/Stuttgart, pp.111-123 (1964)

49) “Documentation Of Rising Intake of Fluorides” – 26 Official Documents compiled by Darlene Sherrell, Dental Fluorosis Prevention Program
http://www.rvi.net/~fluoride/riseinta.htm

THYROID HORMONE DISORDER/Hypothyrodism Symptom Sources:

50)The Thyroid Society
http://www.the-thyroid-society.org/

51)Thyroid Federation International
http://www.thyroid-fed.org/

52)American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, Merck Manual,
Thyroid Foundation of America
http://thyroid.miningco.com/blchklst.htm?pid=2750&cob=home

53) Thomas P. Foley, Jr; M.D.; Professor of Pediatrics University of
Pittsburgh and Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, The MAGIC Foundation Clinical Hypothyroid Divison
http://www.magicfoundation.org/clinhypop.html

54) Werner and Ingbar’s “The thyroid: a fundamental and clinical text” (7th edition) Philadelphia, Lippincott-Raven (1996)

55) Pennec Y, Youinou P, Le Menn G – “Hypothryoidism and eosinophilic fasciitis” J Rheumatol 11(1):110-1 (1984)

56) Iurkevich NP, Savchenko TV -“Lymphedema and hypothyroidism” Klin Med (Mosk) 72(2):33-6(1994)

“The examination covered 1191 lymphedema patients (635 primary and 536 secondary disease cases). Hypothyroidism-like thyroid dysfunction was found in 80% of patients with primary lymphedema”

57) Dick DJ, Lane RJ, Nogues MA, Fawcett PR – “Polyneuropathy in hypothyroidism” Postgrad Med J 59(694):518-9 (1983)

58) McLean RM, Podell DN – “Bone and joint manifestations of hypothyroidism” Semin Arthritis Rheum 24(4):282-90 (1995)

59) Neeck G, Riedel W, Schmidt KL- “Neuropathy, myopathy and destructive arthropathy in primary hypothyroidism”J Rheumatol 17(12):1697-700 (1990)

60) Pauszek ME.- “Hypertension as the presenting problem in primary hypothyroidism” Indiana Med. 82(1):28-9 (1989)

61) Proto G, et al. – “Thyroid disease and retinitis pigmentosa”
J Endocrinol Invest. 19 (9):647-8  (1996)

62) Laoussadi S, Menkes CJ – “Osteoarthritis of rare etiology” Service de Rhumatologie A, Hopital Cochin, Paris. Rev Rhum Ed Fr 61(9 Pt 2):116S-123S (1994)

63) Gries G, et al. – “Studies on the origin of chronic pyelonephritis in hypothyroidism” Med Welt.17:936-9. (1996)

64) Hess RS, Ward CR – “Diabetes mellitus, hyperadrenocorticism, and hypothyroidism in a dog.” J Am Anim Hosp Assoc ;34(3):204-7 (1998)

65) Soares A de D, Falcao LM, De Barros E -“Hypothyroid coma and thyrotoxic crisis” Acta Med Port 1997 Nov;10(11):837-43

66) Caffarra P, et al. – “Ataxia and hypothyroidism”
Ital J Neurol Sci. 7(6):625 (1986)

67) Green ST, Ng JP – “Hypothyroidism and anaemia” Biomed Pharmacother 40(9):326-31(1986)

68) Vernant JC, Cabre P, Smadja D, Merle H, Caubarrere I, Mikol J, Poser CM – “Recurrent optic neuromyelitis with endocrinopathies: a new syndrome.” Neurology 48(1):58-64 (1997)

69) Matteini M, et al.- “On the significance of a syndrome consisting of primary hypothyroidism, testicular germinal dysgenesis, complex renal tubulopathy, mental deficiency, congenital cataract and osteoporosis” Rass Neurol Veg. 22(1):32-55 (1968)

70) Med. Education:Loyola University Medical Education Network
http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/MedEd/medicine/endo/hypothy/hypothylist.htm

70b) Med. Education:Loyola University Medical Education Network
http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/MedEd/medicine/endo/hypothy/hypothy2.htm

71) “Thyroid Dysfunction as a Cause of Aggression in Dogs and Cats” Aronson LP DVM & Dodman NH RVMS – Presented at the 43. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Veterinarmedizinischen Gesellschaft Fachgruppe Kleintierkrankheiten 29-31 August 1997 in HCC Hannover, Germany

72) Silverman S Jr. ” Oral changes in metabolic diseases.” Postgrad Med. 49(1):106-10. (1971)

73) Hegedus L, Heidenheim M, Gervil M, Hjalgrim H, Hoier-Madsen M – “High frequency of thyroid dysfunction in patients with vitiligo” Acta Derm Venereol 74(2):120-3 (1994)

74) Ghayad E, Tohme A, Haddad F, Haddad C, Choueiry R – “Scleroderma with anomalies of the thyroid function. 7 cases” Ann Med Interne (Paris) 148(4):307-10 (1997)

75) Keenan GF, Ostrov BE, Goldsmith DP, Athreya BH – “Rheumatic symptoms associated with hypothyroidism in children” J Pediatr 123(4):586-8 (1993)

76a) Borges MF, Abelin NM, Menezes FO, Dahia PL, Toledo SP-“Calcitonin deficiency in early stages of chronic autoimmunethyroiditis” Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 49(1):69-75 (1998)

76b) Baloch ZW, Saberi M, Livolsi VA – “Simultaneous involvement of thyroid by Riedel’s [correction of Reidel’s] disease and fibrosing Hashimoto’s thyroiditis: a case report.” Thyroid 8(4):337-41(1998)

77) Sridhar GR, Nagamani G – “Hypothyroidism presenting with polycystic ovary syndrome”J Assoc Physicians India 41(2):88-90 (1993)

78) Reuland-Bosma W – “Down syndrome–2. Orofacial aspects” Rev Belge Med Dent. 50(3):53-62 (1995)

79) McIntosh LM, et al. – “The effects of altered metabolism (hypothyroidism) on muscle repair in the mdx dystrophic mouse”  Muscle Nerve 17(4):444-53 (1994)

80) Krupsky M, Flatau E, Yarom R, Resnitzky P – “Musculoskeletal symptoms as a presenting sign of long-standing hypothyroidism” Isr J Med Sci 23(11):1110-3 (1987)

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169) Cathy Rookard, Director, ACIDD Association for Children and Infants with Digestive Disorders

170) Gillberg IC, Gillberg C, Kopp S – “Hypothyroidism and autism spectrum disorders.” J Child Psychol Psychiatry 33(3):531-42 (1992)

171) Comi AM, Zimmerman AW, Frye VH, Law PA, Peeden JN – “Familial clustering of autoimmune disorders and evaluation of medical risk factors in autism.” J Child Neurol 14
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172) McKay, FS – “Progress of the year in the investigation of mottled enamel with special reference to its association with artesian water” J Natl Dental Assn 5:721 (1918)

173) PFPC NEWSLETTER # 9

174) Aytuluner E, Mensiz E – “Heavy iridocorneal angle hyperpigmentation and glaucoma associated with fluorosis” Journal of Toxicology. Cutaneous and ocular toxicology 21(3):203-212 (2002)

175) Cross JM, Girkin CA, Owsley C, McGwin G Jr. – “The Association between Thyroid Problems and Glaucoma” Br J Ophthalmol. 2008 Oct 16. [Epub ahead of print]

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